Don’t let “delta plus” confuse you. The strain hasn’t learned any new tricks

Don’t let “delta plus” confuse you. The strain hasn’t learned any new tricks

Technical names are important for scientists tracking covid’s evolution—but there’s also a lot of confusion over new variants.

If you’ve been worried by recent news stories about a strain of covid called “delta plus,” it may freak you out to hear that scientists just expanded the delta family from four variants to 13.

Please take a deep breath. Scientists would really like you to understand that there’s no evidence delta has learned any new tricks, and these new names are for helping keep track of covid’s evolution—not nine new reasons to panic. And many researchers are also really, really hoping you’ll stop saying “delta plus.”

“The name ‘delta plus’ is completely incorrect, because it gives the perception that this will cause more damage,” says Anderson Brito, a member of the Pango Lineage Designation Committee, which assigns scientific names like B.1.1.7 to new branches of the virus. “So far, we have no evidence any of the mutations affect behavior compared to the original delta variant.”

It might be helpful to think of covid as a tree. Delta is like a thick branch on that tree—a big family of viruses that share a common ancestor and some of the same mutations, which let them spread between people more quickly. When the big branch grows new twigs, which happens all the time, scientists keep track by using technical names that include numbers and letters. But a new scientific name doesn’t mean those viruses will act any differently from the branch they grew from—and if one of those new branches does start to change its behavior, it gets a new Greek letter, not a “plus.”

(Now is a good time to note that while some of delta’s mutations make it more transmissible, vaccines are still very good at preventing severe illness from every known strain of covid.)

What’s in a name?

This naming confusion stems mostly from the way journalists (and their scientist sources) have blended two commonly used systems of tracking covid’s evolution—despite the fact that the approaches have very different strategies and goals.

The alphanumeric system that gave the first delta variant its scientific name—B.1.617.2—is called Pango. It’s meant for researchers tracking small genetic changes to the virus. It doesn’t determine whether new lineages act differently in people, just whether they’re different on a molecular level. There are currently over 1,300 Pango lineages, 13 of which are considered part of the delta family.

The name delta, meanwhile, comes from the WHO system, which is meant to simplify genomics for the general public. It gives names to related covid samples if it believes they may be of particular interest. There are currently eight families with Greek letters, but until there’s evidence a new sublineage of the first delta strain is acting differently from its parents, the WHO considers them all to be delta.

“Delta plus” takes the WHO designation and mixes it up with Pango’s lineage information. It doesn’t mean the virus is more dangerous or more concerning.

“People get quite anxious when they see a new Pango name. But we should not be upset by the discovery of new variants. All the time, we see new variants popping up with no different behavior at all,” says Brito. “If we have evidence a new lineage is more threatening, WHO will give it a new name.”

Tracking evolution

“For a genomic scientist like me, I want to know what variations we’re seeing,” says Kelsey Florek, senior genomics and data scientist for the Wisconsin state public health lab. “For the greater public, it doesn’t really make a difference. Classifying them all as delta is sufficient for communicating with policy makers, public health, and the public.”

Fundamentally, viral evolution works like any other kind. As the virus spreads through the body, it makes copies of itself, which often have small mistakes and changes. Most of these are dead ends, but occasionally, a copy with a mistake replicates enough inside a person to spread to someone else.

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Rajesh Kumar is an Indian photographer, digital marketer, social media influencer, business development consultant, and PR expert. He is best known for brand building, digital media marketing, online sales & project management and affiliate marketing and has over two decades of experience as a digital marketer.